PON and GPON networks

PON and GPON networks

PON and GPON networks The acronym PON, frequently used in fiber installations, comes from English. It stands for Passive Optical Network. It is a passive network, with a single point of transmission to different user points. A PON network has no more active elements to reactivate the signal. The distribution is carried out by means of optical distributors or splitters. It is the topology used in FTTH installations (fiber to the home). When the transmission speed is capable of ensuring 2.4Gbit/s at a distance of 20 km and 128 users, we say that we are dealing with a GPON network. And this is what, normally, we have in our homes. The basic elements of a PON or GPON network are: OLT (Optical Line Termination). It is the active element in the headend, from which the …

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Submarine cables

Submarine cables. They transfer 98% of intercontinental data

Submarine cables If we ask on the street how data travel between Europe and America or Asia, most people would tell us via satellite. The reality is quite different, 98% of the data intercontinental transference is done through submarine cables. There is a gigantic network of cables that redundantly guarantee this service. The transmission capacity of these cables is absolutely amazing. In 2022, a 6,600 km long cable, owned by Google, has been inaugurated between Sopelana beach in Vizcaya and Shirley in the state of New York. The cable is about 20mm wide in diameter and has 16 pairs of fibers inside. The capacity of the whole cable is 340 million Tbits/sec. It could support each Spanish person transmitting 2,000 videos in HD simultaneously. This is the capacity we are talking about. Submarine cables are …

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Underground cables. Different cables for different applications

Underground cables We understand by underground cables those installed below ground level. These cables may or may not be tubed. In the case of being tubed, the characteristics do not differ much from cables that are tubed in other places. Perhaps rodent attacks just have to be considered as a certain possibility. Cables can be laid by hand or pneumatically. In long runs, pneumatic laying is usually used, known as the “blowing system”. Basically the process runs using a hydraulic motor to pull the cable, while injecting pressurized air through the channel at the same time. This way, the friction between the cable and the conduit decreases and the operation is simple and fast. That is, we do not launch the cable with compressed air, the air only facilitates the sliding inside the tube. This …

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The jackets. Different cables for different applications

The jackets We have been emphasizing in the previous entries of this blog that different applications require different cables. And one of the most important criteria when choosing the right cable for our project is the jacket. As a general rule, we can divide fiber optic cables into single-jacket and double-sheath cables. Normally we will find double-jacket cables in outdoor uses and mainly inside pipes and aerial lines. Single PE jacket fibre cable Cable with two PE jackets When a double jacket is used, a reinforcing element is added in between them, usually fiberglass, aramid or steel reinforcement. Following the regulatory standards, if the cable is going to be installed inside a home, public place or when the projecting engineer so determines, the jacket must be made of halogen-free material and classified in accordance with …

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Aerial cables. Different cables for different applications

Aerial cables A cable for aerial laying has, in addition to its own requirements for its operation, an additional critical requirement, and that is it must be able to support its own weight in the worst conditions. These worst conditions refer to wind and ice and some exceptional issues such as birds perching. The most important parameter to be taken into account is the length of the span or distance between posts. The cable has to be designed according to this data plus the previous ones of wind and ice. Depending on the mechanical request, the length of the span to be covered, etc., we can find different types of mechanical reinforcement. There are 2 main types of cables for overhead lines Self-supporting cable. Also called by its acronym in English ADSS (aerial dielectric self …

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